arviz.plot_kde(values, values2=None, cumulative=False, rug=False, label=None, bw='default', adaptive=False, quantiles=None, rotated=False, contour=True, hdi_probs=None, fill_last=False, figsize=None, textsize=None, plot_kwargs=None, fill_kwargs=None, rug_kwargs=None, contour_kwargs=None, contourf_kwargs=None, pcolormesh_kwargs=None, is_circular=False, ax=None, legend=True, backend=None, backend_kwargs=None, show=None, return_glyph=False, **kwargs)[source]#

1D or 2D KDE plot taking into account boundary conditions.


Values to plot

values2array_like, optional

Values to plot. If present, a 2D KDE will be estimated


If true plot the estimated cumulative distribution function. Defaults to False. Ignored for 2D KDE


If True adds a rugplot. Defaults to False. Ignored for 2D KDE


Text to include as part of the legend

bwfloat or str, optional

If numeric, indicates the bandwidth and must be positive. If str, indicates the method to estimate the bandwidth and must be one of “scott”, “silverman”, “isj” or “experimental” when is_circular is False and “taylor” (for now) when is_circular is True. Defaults to “default” which means “experimental” when variable is not circular and “taylor” when it is.

adaptivebool, optional.

If True, an adaptative bandwidth is used. Only valid for 1D KDE. Defaults to False.


Quantiles in ascending order used to segment the KDE. Use [.25, .5, .75] for quartiles. Defaults to None.


Whether to rotate the 1D KDE plot 90 degrees.


If True plot the 2D KDE using contours, otherwise plot a smooth 2D KDE. Defaults to True.


Plots highest density credibility regions for the provided probabilities for a 2D KDE. Defaults to matplotlib chosen levels with no fixed probability associated.


If True fill the last contour of the 2D KDE plot. Defaults to False.

figsize(float, float), optional

Figure size. If None it will be defined automatically.


Text size scaling factor for labels, titles and lines. If None it will be autoscaled based on figsize. Not implemented for bokeh backend.


Keywords passed to the pdf line of a 1D KDE. See matplotlib.axes.Axes.plot() or bokeh:bokeh.plotting.Figure.line() for a description of accepted values.


Keywords passed to the fill under the line (use fill_kwargs={'alpha': 0} to disable fill). Ignored for 2D KDE. Passed to bokeh.plotting.Figure.patch().


Keywords passed to the rug plot. Ignored if rug=False or for 2D KDE Use space keyword (float) to control the position of the rugplot. The larger this number the lower the rugplot. Passed to bokeh.models.glyphs.Scatter.


Keywords passed to matplotlib.axes.Axes.contour() to draw contour lines or bokeh.plotting.Figure.patch(). Ignored for 1D KDE.


Keywords passed to matplotlib.axes.Axes.contourf() to draw filled contours. Ignored for 1D KDE.


Keywords passed to matplotlib.axes.Axes.pcolormesh() or bokeh.plotting.Figure.image(). Ignored for 1D KDE.

is_circular{False, True, “radians”, “degrees”}. Default False.

Select input type {“radians”, “degrees”} for circular histogram or KDE plot. If True, default input type is “radians”. When this argument is present, it interprets values is a circular variable measured in radians and a circular KDE is used. Inputs in “degrees” will undergo an internal conversion to radians.

axaxes, optional

Matplotlib axes or bokeh figures.


Add legend to the figure. By default True.

backend: str, optional

Select plotting backend {“matplotlib”,”bokeh”}. Default “matplotlib”.

backend_kwargs: bool, optional

These are kwargs specific to the backend being used, passed to matplotlib.pyplot.subplots() or bokeh.plotting.figure(). For additional documentation check the plotting method of the backend.

showbool, optional

Call backend show function.

return_glyphbool, optional

Internal argument to return glyphs for bokeh

axesmatplotlib.Axes or bokeh.plotting.Figure

Object containing the kde plot

glyphslist, optional

Bokeh glyphs present in plot. Only provided if return_glyph is True.

See also


One dimensional density estimation.


Plot distribution as histogram or kernel density estimates.


Plot default KDE

>>> import arviz as az
>>> non_centered = az.load_arviz_data('non_centered_eight')
>>> mu_posterior = np.concatenate(non_centered.posterior["mu"].values)
>>> tau_posterior = np.concatenate(non_centered.posterior["tau"].values)
>>> az.plot_kde(mu_posterior)

Plot KDE with rugplot

>>> az.plot_kde(mu_posterior, rug=True)

Plot KDE with adaptive bandwidth

>>> az.plot_kde(mu_posterior, adaptive=True)

Plot KDE with a different bandwidth estimator

>>> az.plot_kde(mu_posterior, bw="scott")

Plot KDE with a bandwidth specified manually

>>> az.plot_kde(mu_posterior, bw=0.4)

Plot KDE for a circular variable

>>> rvs = np.random.vonmises(mu=np.pi, kappa=2, size=500)
>>> az.plot_kde(rvs, is_circular=True)

Plot a cumulative distribution

>>> az.plot_kde(mu_posterior, cumulative=True)

Rotate plot 90 degrees

>>> az.plot_kde(mu_posterior, rotated=True)

Plot 2d contour KDE

>>> az.plot_kde(mu_posterior, values2=tau_posterior)

Plot 2d contour KDE, without filling and contour lines using viridis cmap

>>> az.plot_kde(mu_posterior, values2=tau_posterior,
...             contour_kwargs={"colors":None, "cmap"},
...             contourf_kwargs={"alpha":0});

Plot 2d contour KDE, set the number of levels to 3.

>>> az.plot_kde(
...     mu_posterior, values2=tau_posterior,
...     contour_kwargs={"levels":3}, contourf_kwargs={"levels":3}
... );

Plot 2d contour KDE with 30%, 60% and 90% HDI contours.

>>> az.plot_kde(mu_posterior, values2=tau_posterior, hdi_probs=[0.3, 0.6, 0.9])

Plot 2d smooth KDE

>>> az.plot_kde(mu_posterior, values2=tau_posterior, contour=False)